Learn the Meanings of Common Dental Terminology

Archive for bacteria


While harmful in high concentrations, a low concentration can be found in many products like mouthwash or contact lens solution. It is used to fight against fungi and enveloped viruses. For dental use it most effective for reducing plaque and oral bacteria. Chlorhexidine lasts longer than other mouth washes and is the preferred treatment for gingivitis.

There are some negative effects of long term use of Chlorhexidine including stains on teeth and may alter taste sensations.


Being free of contaminates that cause disease like bacteria, fungus and viruses. The term is used in medicine or surgery as a way to prevent infection like a sterile environment. However, it is impossible to be completely sterile as the patient will contaminate itself. The goal of Asepsis is to eliminate the possibility of infection.

The autoclave is a device that is used to sterilize surgical instruments and was invented by Ernst von Bergmann. Joseph Lister promoted antiseptic use with substances like carbolic acid which kills microbes, however, this practice can irritate tissues of the surgery site. It was Lawson Tait who introduced Asepsis as a practice of keeping the area of the surgery clean without using antiseptics on tissues themselves.

Periodontal Disease

The two main categories of periodontal disease are gingivitis and periodontitis. In most cases gingivitis proceeds periodontitis. These type of diseases affect the periodontal tissues which are the tissues that support the teeth. Inflammation and infection break down destroying the gums which can cause teeth to fall out.

Brushing your teeth regularly will help keep you from getting periodontal disease, however, almost everyone has some stage of gingivitis.  Your gum tissue is subject to bacteria constantly. Some of this bacteria is collected into plaque which adheres to your teeth and can aggravate your gum tissue. Plaque is hard to get off with a tooth brush. That is why you need to have a dentist scrape of the plaque with special dental tools.

Severe periodontal disease can lead to other serious health problems such as heart disease, stroke and respiratory disease.


This is a disease of the gums. Plaque is material that forms on teeth that traps bacteria on the tooth causing it to breakdown and decay. At the base of the tooth hard deposits called tartar which also have bacteria trapped in will irritate the gums causing inflammation and infection.

Most everyone has some degree of gingivitis as it can be caused by illness, poor hygiene, hormonal chains or diabetes. If you brush your teeth hard enough to cause your gums to bleed or if you have braces there is a good chance that you may need to consider steps to reduce your gingivitis.

Teeth cleaning from your dentist will help remove plaque. Increased attention to oral hygiene and the use of antibacterial mouth wash will help gums heal and keep gingivitis from getting out of control and causing more serious periodontal disease.


Sometimes confused with Gingivitis, however, gingivitis happens before periodontitis. Periodontitis is severe and is a result of untreated gingivitis. Gums become inflamed and or infected which will deteriorate the support for the teeth.

Plaque and tartar buildup and contain bacteria that can be trapped in pockets of swelling tissue. This will eventually cause the destruction of gum, bone and ligament tissue. A tooth abscess may also develop.

Gums will appear red-purple and swollen. Often a bad breath odor accompanies peritontitis. Gums may be tender but not necessarily painful. Blood on toothbrush is often a sign that some stage of periodontitis is occurring.

Left untreated will cause tooth loss and possible infection to the jaw bone.

Depending on the severity, surgery may be necessary to repair gums and loose teeth.  After correcting gum and tooth structure a long with the removal of plaque and calculus deposits a meticulous oral hygiene regimen is needed to prevent further deterioration.